Dr. Jack Sites, Brigham Young University
Dr. José Nuñez, Universidad Austral de Chile
Eupsophus calcaratus is an endemic frog of the temperate Nothofagus forest of Southern Chile and Argentina. The distributional range covers a wide variety of environmental conditions, from Mediterranean to cold temperate and subantartic oceanic. Over much if its range, E. calcaratus occurs sympatrically with Batrachyla leptopus. It occurs in shady microhabitats (swamps and streams borders) in humid forests dominated by Nothofagus spp. Males of Eupsophus species call while concealed in holes or tunnels at the edges of streams in the forest in austral spring from September to November.
l development takes place in small water-filled holes and tunnels in the ground near to streams or in flodded ground; the free-swimming tadpole is endotrophic and unpigmented. Recently, parental care behavior was described for this species. Eupsophus calcaratus is listed as Least Concern (LC) in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category. General habitat loss and degradation due to deforestation is a major threat. Water pollution caused by forestry work is also a treat.
Batrachyla leptopus is an endemic frog of the temperate Nothofagus forest of Southern Chile and Argentina; in Chile it is distributed from Concepción (36° 47'S) to Coihaique (45° 33'S). Its altitudinal range is from 50 to 1,000 m asl. It can be found in humid temperate to cold forests, bogs
nd wetlands surrounded by forests, shores of ponds, and lakes surrounded with swamps.
Males of Batrachyla species call from January to May (Austral Autumn) at the edges of water, amidst vegetation or under fallen logs and rocks. Eggs (diameter of ova 3-4 mm) are laid in clusters of 93-146 and fertilized on damp soil under logs and rocks, where embryonic development takes place. After rain, these areas are flooded and the tadpoles develop in flood water.
Adults of this species have been seen climbing Nothofagus trees and recently, parental care behavior a
lso was described for this species. Batrachyla leptopus can occur in lightly modified habitats such as rural gardens. Over much if its range, B. leptopus occurs sympatrically with E. calcaratus and tolerates some deforestation. In Chile, B. leptopus is listed as Least Concern (LC) in view of its wide distribution.